Purkinje Effect

mainEver wondered why the colors seem to change at night? For example, if you look at an air painting, you can see how the colors of objects look radically different in very low light just before dawn or dusk. Consider a red rose, for instance. We know that the flower’s petals are bright red against the green of the leaves in daylight. But, take a look at dusk and you will see that suddenly the contrast is reversed, with the red flower petals now appearing dark red or dark warm gray, and the leaves appearing relatively bright. Bright red doesn’t remain bright red anymore, and green doesn’t remain green either. They all become a bit monochromatic and it becomes difficult to separate them. Why does this happen?   Continue reading

What Does Backpropagation Mean?

feedbackPeople started working on artificial intelligence back in the late ’60s. After they came up with the concept of perceptron, this field looked very promising. But as the years passed by, no significant development took place even after making several attempts from multiple directions! As people were beginning to lose hope, backpropagation came into picture and breathed new life into this field. Backpropagation was the result of pioneering work by mathematicians and computer scientists, which eventually led to a successful revival of artificial intelligence! So what exactly is backpropagation? How is it used in real life?   Continue reading

Perceiving The Perceptron

multi layer perceptronIf you are hearing the word “perceptron” for the first time, it sounds a lot like a futuristic robot which can perceive things right? Well, that’s not exactly what it means! Perceptron is a machine learning algorithm for supervised classification. It is one of the very first algorithms to be formulated in the field of artificial intelligence. When it first came out, it was very promising. But over the following years, the performance didn’t exactly reach the expectations. It was studied for many years and the theory was modified and extended in a lot of ways. Now, it has become an integral part in the field of artificial neural networks. So what exactly is a perceptron? Where do we use it in real life?   Continue reading

Artificial Neural Networks

We want our machines to learn everything on their own as much as possible. Over the past few decades, researchers have come up with many theories and formulations about how we can achieve this in the best possible way. This realm is called machine learning. We come up with algorithms to teach the machines how to learn. I have discussed more about machine learning here. Human brain seems to achieve this rather effortlessly. Our ultimate goal is to make the machines as good as our brains, or even better. The formulation of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an attempt towards this.   Continue reading