Deep Learning For Sequential Data – Part I: Why Do We Need It

1 mainMost of the current research on deep learning is focused on images. Deep learning is being actively applied to many areas, but image recognition is definitely generating a lot of buzz. Deep neural networks are being used for image classification tasks and they are able to outperform all the other approaches by a big margin. The networks that are used here are traditional feedforward neural networks that learn how to classify data by generating the optimal feature representation. These neural networks severely limited when it comes to sequential data. Time series data is perhaps the most popular form of sequential data. Why can’t we use feedforward neural networks analyze sequential data?   Continue reading

Deep Learning With Caffe In Python – Part IV: Classifying An Image

4 mainIn the previous blog post, we learnt how to train a convolutional neural network (CNN). One of the most popular use cases for a CNN is to classify images. Once the CNN is trained, we need to know how to use it to classify an unknown image. The trained model files will be stored as “caffemodel” files, so we need to load those files, preprocess the input images, and then extract the output tags for those images. In this post, we will see how to load those trained model files and use it to classify an image. Let’s go ahead see how to do it, shall we?   Continue reading

Deep Learning With Caffe In Python – Part III: Training A CNN

3 mainIn the previous blog post, we learnt about how to interact with a Caffe model. In this blog post, we will learn how to train a proper CNN. Up until now, we were dealing with a single layer network. We just defined it in a prototxt file and visualized it easily. If we want our CNN to perform any meaningful tasks, we should define a multilayer network and allow it to train on a large amount of data. Caffe makes it very easy for us to train a multilayer network. We can specify all the parameters in a prototxt file, create a training database, and just train the network. Let’s go ahead and see how to do that, shall we?   Continue reading

Deep Learning With Caffe In Python – Part II: Interacting With A Model

2 mainI know that the title looks slightly misleading. If you are thinking that we will be talking about how to interact with fashion models at a coffee shop, you are in for a big surprise! In the previous blog post, we talked about how to define and visualize a single layer convolutional neural network (CNN). In this post, we will discuss how to interact with a Caffe model. This is a continuation of the previous blog post. So if you haven’t read it, you may want to take a quick glance at it before you proceed. In that post, we defined our CNN architecture in a prototxt file. Now how do we make it do stuff for us? When we load such a network using Caffe, it comes with a bunch of features. Let’s see how to work with our model, shall we?   Continue reading

Deep Learning With Caffe In Python – Part I: Defining A Layer

1 mainCaffe is one the most popular deep learning packages out there. In one of the previous blog posts, we talked about how to install Caffe. In this blog post, we will discuss how to get started with Caffe and use its various features. We will then build a convolutional neural network (CNN) that can be used for image classification. Caffe plays very well with the GPU during the training process, hence we can achieve a lot of speed-up. For the purpose of this discussion, it is assumed that you have already installed Caffe on your machine. Let’s go ahead and see how to interact with Caffe, shall we?   Continue reading

How To Train A Neural Network In Python – Part III

ImageJ=1.44p unit=umIn the previous blog post, we learnt how to build a multilayer neural network in Python. What we did there falls under the category of supervised learning. In that realm, we have some training data and we have the associated labels. Now the goal is to train the neural network correctly label our training data. Once we train the model, we can use it to predict the labels of unknown datapoints. But what about unsupervised learning? In the real world, we also have to deal with a lot of unlabeled data. Can we train a neural network to recognize clusters in our data? Yes, we certainly can! Let’s go ahead and see how we can do that in Python, shall we?   Continue reading

How To Train A Neural Network In Python – Part II

1 mainIn the previous blog post, we discussed about perceptrons. We learnt how to train a perceptron in Python to achieve a simple classification task. If you need a quick refresher on perceptrons, you can check out that blog post before proceeding further. In a way, perceptron is a single layer neural network with a single neuron. In this blog post, we will learn how to develop a multilayer neural network. A multilayer neural network consists of multiple layers and each layer consists of many perceptrons, and it is much better at classifying data that a single perceptron. So how exactly does a multilayer neural network function? How do we build it in Python?   Continue reading

How To Train A Neural Network In Python – Part I

1 mainDeep learning uses neural networks to build sophisticated models. The basic building blocks of these neural networks are called “neurons”. When a neuron is trained to act like a simple classifier, we call it “perceptron”. A neural network consists of a lot of perceptrons interconnected with each other. Let’s say we have a bunch of inputs and the corresponding desired outputs. The goal of deep learning is to train this neural network so that the system outputs the right value for the given set of inputs. This process basically involves tuning each neuron in the network until it behaves a certain way. So what exactly is this perceptron? How do we train it in Python?   Continue reading

Autoencoders In Machine Learning

1 mainWhen we talk about deep neural networks, we tend to focus on feature learning. Traditionally, in the field of machine learning, people use hand-crafted features. What this means is that we look at the data and build a feature vector which we think would be good and discriminative. Once we have that, we train a model to learn from it. But one of the biggest problems with this approach is that we don’t really know if it’s the best possible representation of the data. Ideally, we would want the machine to learn the features by itself, and then use it to build the machine learning model. Autoencoder is one such neural network which aims to learn how to build optimal feature vector for the given data. So how exactly does it work? How is it used in practice?   Continue reading

What Is Random Walk?

1 mainConsider the following situation. We have a drunkard who is clinging to a lamppost, and now he decides to start walking. He is in the middle of the street and the road runs from east to west. In his inebriated state, he is as likely to take a step towards the east as he is towards the west. It just means that there is a 50% chance that he will go in either direction. From each new position, he is again as likely to go east or west. Each of his steps are of the same length but in random direction. After having taken ‘n’ number of steps, he is to be found standing at some position on the street. This is what a random walk is. We can plot the position against the number of steps taken for any particular random walk. Now the question is, can we model his movement so that we can predict where he will be after taking ‘n’ steps?   Continue reading